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Advertising in the Marketing Mix

Advertising in the Marketing Mix

Basically, marketing is the business process of managing the flow of goods, services or processes form the producer to the user or customer, involving assessment of sales of the product, etc, and responsibility for its promotion, distribution and development (The Chambers Dictionary, 1999). Implicit in this definition is that marketing involves the offer of goods, services or processes for sale at the right price, to the right people and at the right time
In marketing, society is divided into two broad sections – Craft and Industrial

1. Craft Society – Here, work is mostly by hand or there is not much machine. Trade is sometimes by barter. Marketing is face-to-face and there is an absence of the middleman concept. The producer is usually the seller. Rent is not usually paid in the craft society.

2. Industrial Society – There is large-scale production in the industrial society and marketing is impersonal. The population is heterogeneous and, therefore, there is a breakdown identity.
This makes it imperative that there should be goods distribution channels. In this form of society where face-to-face communication is tedious and expensive, middlemen function in two distinct ways as merchant and as functional middlemen.
Merchant buy products from the manufacturer and in turn sell and make profit for themselves. Functional middlemen on the other hand, are sales agents or representatives who sell the products for manufacturers and are paid commissions on sales.

These are devices, which helps manufactures to speed up sales. They are also called the mechanics of sales. These lubricants of sales are prices, personal selling and advertising.
It prices are low or good, people will buy more of the products. However, low prices have an in-built evil, it could make a product look inferior and competitors often exploit it to therefore, many prefer to use discounts, buyer’s stamps and/or coupons lower the prices of their products without making them seem cheap.

Personal Selling involves house-to-house sales of products. Salesmen are usually employed for this and they carry the products from house-to-house or from one area to another and sell directly to buyers.
Advertising which is the other lubricant of sales in an industrial society, as has been explained in Chapter 4, is made up of two forms, Broad advertising and Functional advertising. We have seen Broad advertising to be composed of two subdivisions, Primary Demand and Selective Demand. Functional advertising, on the other hand, we have subdivided into National, Retail, Farm and Vocational.

Advertising cannot physically force a consumer towards the purchase of goods. Its purpose is to create a state of mind conducive to purchase. Advertising is one of the several communication forces, which, acting either singly or in combination with other factors moves the consumer up through successive levels of the communication ladder. The steps of this communication ladder shall be examined in terms of
1. Ignorance (Unawareness)
2. Awareness
3. Comprehension
4. Preference or Conviction
5. Intent to buy
6. Insistence to buy
7. Action or Actual Purchase.

With new products, customers are ignorant of the existence of the product or service. Thus, at the bottom of the ladder is unawareness. Messages about the product or service have not penetrated to the point where the consumer can recall the brand or company name. Of course, it is possible that people occasionally buy products whose names are unknown to them, but the chances are that such products make very few sales. The task of the advertiser at this state is to make the consumer aware of the product. This is the second level, the level of awareness of the new brand of product.
From the level of the awareness, we move on to the next step of comprehension. In this state, the consumer is not only aware of the product or service, but also knows the brand name and recognizes the package or trade mark and, in addition, possesses some degree understanding what the product is and does. He may say, for instance, “Brand ‘A’ is a remedy for aches and pain” since the manufacturer, claim that is gives fast and effective relief, because it dissolves instantly. Advertisements at this stage should be aimed at encouraging the consumer to buy the product.
One step higher is the level of conviction or preference. Preference of the particular brand of product is rather a matter of the mind.

The consumer simply convinces himself that “Brand ‘B’, which is new type of margarine is better than others because it stays fresh longer and tastes better than other margarines. Therefore, I intend to buy this product”.
When this has been established in the consumer’s mind, he decides that he will buy the brand whenever he needs or want to buy the product. This is the level at which the consumer insists that “I intend to buy this brand of detergent”. His degree of insistence on the brand of the product at this image is determined by consistency of the advertisement support the brand of the product now receives. The manufacturer should, therefore, persist in advertising his brand of the product so that the customers may eventually start buying the brand advertised.

Finally, at the top of the ladder, is action in which the consumer has made a positive move towards the actual purchase of the brand of the product. Even after the seventh stage, advertising should be continued. This will keep reminding the buyer about the brand for further purchases and also to convince him that he made wise choice when it contributes to moving the consumer up one or more rungs of the communication ladder. However, it must be emphasized that advertising is only one of the marketing forces that attempts to move consumers up this ladder.
Personal selling, point-to-sale displays, products design, price, availability and packaging, to name a few, all add up to the pressure to move the consumer up the steps of the ladder.
It should be bore in mind that there are also number of forces that work in the opposite direction, which could hinder the journey up the ladder or make it more laborious. These include competition, lapse of memory, resistance to sale and product loyalty among others. It is the function of advertising, marketing and sales executives to counter these deterrent forces as soon as they become evident.

These include a combination of emotional and rational appeals such as
1. Desire for recognition and superiority
2. Desire for good health and longer life
3. Desire for comfort
4. Desire for appetizing food
5. Desire for security
6. Desire to earn money
7. Desire to save money
8. Desire to protect ones family
9. Desire to win approval of the opposite sx
10 Desire to save time
11. Desire to minimize labor
12. Desire for amusement.

Advertising has four basic sides. We can consider these four side from two point of view, the communication and the marketing point of view. From the communication point of view;
The sender of the message is the advertiser
The message is the advertisement itself
The receiver is the prospective customer
The medium is an of the various media of mass communication
The difference between this and the marketing point of view is that in marketing, the producer is placed at the center if things while the message is placed first in the communication point of view.

From the marketing point of view, the four side of the quadrangle are;
(a) The product which is featured in the advert
(b) The potential buyer is influenced by the advert
(c) The seller who sponsors the advert
(d) The distribution channel, which brings the product physically from the place of production to the place of consumption

1. Transportation
2. Storage
3. Buying
4. Selling including advertising
5. Financing
6. Standardization – constancy in product standard
7. Risk bearing
8. Gathering of market information

There are two basic types of products, industrial and consumer. Goods can be both consumer as well as industrial. When, for instance, we sell simple goods like oranges, when ordinarily are a consumer product to a squash manufacturing company, the oranges become industrial products.
Thus when products are sold for the manufacture of other products, they are considered as industrial products. Thus the difference or dividing line is the use to which the product is applied. Consumer products can be further divided into;
1. Convenience goods
2. Shopping goods
3. Specialty goods

Convenience goods can be obtained anywhere whenever the need for them arises e.g. soaps, matches and toilet rolls. They are frequently purchased because of the nature of their uses. With convenience goods, the emphasis as far as advertising is hammering the brand name into the head of consumers. The advertising task is that of the manufacturers
Shopping goods have low purchase frequency e.g. television, furniture etc. Serious consideration is given before purchase if made. It is a major purchase. One has to save money to be able to purchase shopping goods. The shop where the product is bought is usually a major consideration e.g. Wood Affairs for Furniture.

With shopping goods, the emphasis is one where to purchase the product. The task of advertising is a joint venture between the manufacturer and the dealers.
Specialty goods are related to shopping goods in that, they are not frequently purchased. With specialty goods, however, the shop where the product is sold or where you buy it is not of vital importance as is a peculiarity with shopping goods. What is important is the quality of the goods e.g. generator, cars etc.
With specialty goods, the emphasis is on the quality associated with the brand. The task of advertising rests with the manufacturers. Usually with specialty goods, it is either the consumer buys the particular product he wants or if he cannot find it, he postpones purchase.

Consumers’ are often influenced in their choice of goods by advertising, testimony on products from friends and relations and product loyalty, developing a likeness for a particular product because, the consumer has been convinced about the good qualities of the product through previous use

Another name for merchandising is product development. Manufacturer often bring changes in products for the following reasons
Recognition of an unmet need
Utilization of waste products
Utilization of material for a higher value use
Desire to match new or improved competitive products
Inability to secure supplies from the usual sources
A need for change in distribution
Suggestions in the market, these suggestions express the changing taste of consumers and n be identified through research.

There are two basic types of product decision
1. Those involving changes in the products as it is now produced in order to make it more acceptable to the market
2. Those involving the adding of new items to the product line or the dropping of old items

This include quality, performance (what it does), range of sizes and types offered, packaging, brand name, label and production facilities

Packaging – That which contains the product constitutes the package. The nature of the product determines the packaging suitable for it. This may come in form of individual product package or as multi-unit packs in foils, label paper, flexible cartons, fiberite boxes, plastic material or glass. The manufacturer designs the packaging of his product with both functional and aesthetic consideration including;
For easy identification
For easy storage
To facilitate transportation
For preservation and as a protective device
To add beauty
For easy retail

Four factors are taken into consideration when designing packages
(i) Handling convenience
(ii) Opening and use
(iii) Storage on shelves and in the refrigerator
(v) Ease in pouring out of content and closing

Brand Name – Products are given brand names for easy brand identification. Finding a brand name for products is one of the difficult problems manufacturers encounter. In considering a brand name, it has to be noted that;
A brand name should have graphic possibilities
It should have promotional value; the brand name should be visible to serve as springboard for promotional campaigns
Brand names should be short, unique, accurate to a degree, and not too imitative and not subject to unfavorable backward ready.

Trade Mark – This is a symbol that represents the manufacturer. A trade character, on the other hand, is a drawing of an animate object used to induce people to think of the manufacturers in terms of the object. A trade character should be humorous and interesting
Trade Name – A trade name is the proper name of a company

Label – The label carries the trademark, trade character and brand name of a product. Its main functions include;
It helps to easily identify a product

It contains a table of contents of the product and carries direction for the use of the product.
It also helps in advertising the product and also carries the trade name of the manufacturers and indicates where the product was made.
The label of a product should be made to be attractive and should fit the image of the product

Advertising is only one of the several market forces that facilitate sales. Interestingly, minus advertising all the other elements begin with the letter “P” and include;
Personal Selling

Firstly, the most important element is the Product itself, its quality and performance, and this is followed closely by the product’s Packaging which in some cases, include the design of the product itself.
The next letter “P” is Point-of-Purchase, which could be a department store, supermarket, shop or kiosk. Without the product being available through channels of distribution, the sale can never take place. Inadequate distribution leads to customer disillusionment and loss of sales. Effective marketing must therefore, be governed by effective distribution.

Personal Selling at the manufacture, distribution and retail levels, Promotion through sales aids and favorable Publicity (other than paid advertising) are all vital components of the marketing mix. And above all, the Price must be good and competitive to justify decision to buy.
Besides these basic forces in the marketing mix, there are still other variables to contend with in Nigeria. There is, for instance, fueled by corruption in high and low places, deteriorating economic situation, which constantly values, a growing get-rich-quick mentality, greed false appetite climatic considerations to contend with as well as competition.

In some circumstances, advertising may represent just a little drop of the marking budget. In others, it may be the major consideration among the contending marketing forces. However, unless it is dominant marketing force, outweighing all the other marketing forces combined, it is difficult to establish a positive relationship between the volume of advertising and the volume of sales.
Again, today’s advertising may pay off instantly or may do so one week, the next month, and one or even several years later. This is particularly true of high cost items. This year’s luxury car advertisement may not produce results until next year or the year after. It is also true of low-priced, frequently purchased mass consumer products

The consumer who switches to a different brand of lager or soap or detergent because of advertising may continue to use the brand and pay dividends to the advertiser for years afterwards. Therefore, it may be unrealistic to categorically ascribe credit for producing a new and regular consumer of a product or service to the advertising of particular period in which the first sale to this convert was made.
In essence, current sales figures are not necessary the final yardsticks for measuring advertising performance unless one or more of the following factors are present
1. Advertising is the single variable factor
2. Advertising is the dominant force in the marketing mix
3. The proposition calls for an immediate purchase

Seldom do these conditions prevail among nationally advertised products directed at the mass market. Therefore, it is difficult to expect to find some magic formula or statistical converter which will firmly determine that “so much” advertising Naira will invariably result in “so much” Naira sales.

However, even if advertising my not achieve instant sales results, it invariably succeeds in sowing the seeds of possible sales. Time would see the seed germinate and produce desired harvest. But it may be noted that there is nothing magical or mysterious about advertising. It will not do the impossible. It cannot, for example, get repeat business for a product or service, which does not represent value for money to the customer. It cannot sell goods that are not adequately distributed.
Advertising, on its own, cannot sell a good product or service overnight. It takes time to build a business. Consequently, the role of advertising is the marketing mi is to keep the business growing through increase in sales.

Advertising cannot economically sell goods or services where the selling agents is uncooperative, hostile or uniformed about it unique attributes. This is particularly true in the vehicle business. Vehicle customers lay out a great deal of money. They want specialized advised, responsible information and cooperation to encourage their goodwill and eventually patronage.
On the more positive side, advertising develops a direct bond between the producer and the customer. In many cases, this franchise is more valuable to a company than its physical installation. If the latter is damaged they can be repaired. However, a battered or wobbly corporate or image could lead to the collapse if a company or its products.
Advertising ensures that men and women have a choice, a real choice to select what they want buy from the myriad of competing alternatives. Its main purpose is to impart information, develop attitudes and induce action beneficial to the advertiser through sales. It is one major weapon in the marketing man’s armory, which if properly applied assist considerably in achieving a pre-determined marketing objective.

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